Nature conservation

Threatened species

Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest of the New South Wales North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner Bioregions - profile

Indicative distribution

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The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest of the New South Wales North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner Bioregions
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered Ecological Community
Commonwealth status: Not listed
Gazetted date: 17 Dec 2004
Profile last updated: 23 Mar 2022


This community is found on the coastal floodplains of NSW. It has a dense to sparse tree layer in which Casuarina glauca (swamp oak) is the dominant species northwards from Bermagui.

Other trees including Acmena smithii (lilly pilly), Glochidion spp. (cheese trees) and Melaleuca spp. (paperbarks) may be present as subordinate species, and are found most frequently in stands of the community northwards from Gosford. Tree diversity decreases with latitude, and Melaleuca ericifolia is the only abundant tree in this community south of Bermagui.

The understorey is characterised by frequent occurrences of vines, Parsonsia straminea, Geitonoplesium cymosum and Stephania japonica var. discolor, a sparse cover of shrubs, and a continuous groundcover of forbs, sedges, grasses and leaf litter.

The composition of the ground stratum varies depending on levels of salinity in the groundwater. Under less saline conditions prominent ground layer plants include forbs such Centella asiatica, Commelina cyanea, Persicaria decipiens and Viola banksii; graminoids such as Carex appressa, Gahnia clarkei, Lomandra longifolia, Oplismenus imbecillis; and the fern Hypolepis muelleri.

On the fringes of coastal estuaries, where soils are more saline, the ground layer may include the threatened grass species, Alexfloydia repens, as well as Baumea juncea, Juncus kraussii, Phragmites australis, Selliera radicans and other saltmarsh species.

For a comprehensive list of species that characterize the community open the Scientific Determination link in the top right box.


Known from parts of the Local Government Areas of Tweed, Byron, Lismore, Ballina, Richmond Valley, Clarence Valley, Coffs Harbour, Bellingen, Nambucca, Kempsey, Hastings, Greater Taree, Great Lakes, Port Stephens, Maitland, Newcastle, Cessnock, Lake Macquarie, Wyong, Gosford, Pittwater, Warringah, Hawkesbury, Baulkham Hills, Hornsby, Lane Cove, Blacktown, Auburn, Parramatta, Canada Bay, Rockdale, Kogarah, Sutherland, Penrith, Fairfield, Liverpool, Bankstown, Wollondilly, Camden, Campbelltown, Wollongong, Shellharbour, Kiama, Shoalhaven, Eurobodalla and Bega Valley but may occur elsewhere in these bioregions. Major examples once occurred on the floodplains of the Clarence, Macleay, Hastings, Manning, Hunter, Hawkesbury, Shoalhaven and Moruya Rivers.

The extent of the Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest prior to European settlement has not been mapped across its entire range. However, the remaining area of Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest is likely to represent much less than 30% of its original range. Major occurrences include: less than 350 ha on the Tweed lowlands; less than 650 ha on the lower Clarence floodplain; less than 400 ha on the lower Macleay floodplain; less than 3,200 ha in the lower Hunter - central Hunter region; less than 5,200 ha in the Sydney - South Coast region; and less than 1,000 ha in the Eden region.

Small areas of Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest are contained within existing conservation reserves, including Stotts Island, Ukerebagh, Tuckean, Pambalong, Wamberal, Towra Point and Cullendulla Creek Nature Reserves and Bongil Bongil, Myall Lakes and Conjola National Parks. These occurrences are unevenly distributed throughout the range and unlikely to represent the full diversity of the community.

Habitat and ecology

  • Associated with grey-black clay-loams and sandy loams, where the groundwater is saline or sub-saline, on waterlogged or periodically inundated flats, drainage lines, lake margins and estuarine fringes associated with coastal floodplains
  • Generally occurs below 20 m (rarely above 10 m) elevation
  • The structure of the community may vary from open forests to low woodlands, scrubs or reedlands with scattered trees.

Regional distribution and habitat

Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.


Recovery strategies

Activities to assist this species

Information sources

IBRA Bioregion IBRA Subregion Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
NSW North CoastCoffs Coast and Escarpment Known None
NSW North CoastKaruah Manning Known None
NSW North CoastMacleay Hastings Known None
NSW North CoastUpper Hunter Predicted None
NSW North CoastYuraygir Predicted None
Other StateJervis Bay Territory Known None
South East CornerBateman Known None
South East CornerEast Gippsland Lowlands Known None
South East CornerSouth East Coastal Ranges Known None
South Eastern QueenslandBurringbar-Conondale Ranges Known None
South Eastern QueenslandClarence Lowlands Known None
South Eastern QueenslandScenic Rim Known None
South Eastern QueenslandSunshine Coast-Gold Coast Lowlands Known None
Sydney BasinCumberland Known None
Sydney BasinHunter Known None
Sydney BasinIllawarra Known None
Sydney BasinJervis Known None
Sydney BasinKerrabee Predicted None
Sydney BasinPittwater Known None
Sydney BasinSydney Cataract Known None
Sydney BasinWollemi Predicted None
Sydney BasinWyong Known None
Sydney BasinYengo Known None