Nature conservation

Threatened species

Green and Golden Bell Frog - profile

Indicative distribution

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The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Litoria aurea
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered
Commonwealth status: Vulnerable
Profile last updated: 14 Oct 2022


A relatively large, stout frog, ranging in size from approximately 45 mm to approximately 100 mm snout to vent length. Diagnostic features are a gold or creamish white stripe running along the side, extending from the upper eyelids almost to the groin, with a narrow dark brown stripe beneath it, from nostril to eye. It also has blue or bluish-green colour on the inside of the thighs.The colour of the body varies. Usually a vivid pea-green, splotched with an almost metallic brassy brown or gold. The backs of some individuals may be almost entirely green; in others golden-brown markings may dominate.


Formerly distributed from the NSW north coast near Brunswick Heads, southwards along the NSW coast to Victoria where it extends into east Gippsland. Records from west to Bathurst, Tumut and the ACT region. Since 1990 there have been approximately 50 recorded locations in NSW, most of which are small, coastal, or near coastal populations. These locations occur over the species’ former range, however they are widely separated and isolated. Large populations in NSW are located around the metropolitan areas of Sydney, Shoalhaven and mid north coast (one an island population). There is only one known population on the NSW Southern Tablelands.

Habitat and ecology

  • Inhabits marshes, dams and stream-sides, particularly those containing bullrushes (Typha spp.) or spikerushes (Eleocharis spp.).
  • Optimum habitat includes water-bodies that are unshaded, free of predatory fish such as Plague Minnow (Gambusia holbrooki), have a grassy area nearby and diurnal sheltering sites available.
  • Some sites, particularly in the Greater Sydney region occur in highly disturbed areas.
  • The species is active by day and usually breeds in summer when conditions are warm and wet.
  • Males call while floating in water and females produce a raft of eggs that initially float before settling to the bottom, often amongst vegetation.
  • Tadpoles feed on algae and other plant-matter; adults eat mainly insects, but also other frogs.
  • Preyed upon by various wading birds and snakes.

Regional distribution and habitat

Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.


Recovery strategies

Activities to assist this species

Information sources

IBRA Bioregion IBRA Subregion Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
NSW North CoastCoffs Coast and Escarpment Known None
NSW North CoastKaruah Manning Known None
NSW North CoastMacleay Hastings Known None
NSW North CoastUpper Hunter Known None
NSW North CoastYuraygir Known None
NSW South Western SlopesCapertee Valley Predicted None
OceanBatemans Shelf Known None
OceanHawkesbury Shelf Known None
Other StateACT Known None
Other StateJervis Bay Territory Known None
Other StateVIC Known None
South East CornerBateman Known None
South East CornerEast Gippsland Lowlands Known None
South East CornerSouth East Coastal Ranges Known None
South Eastern HighlandsBathurst Known None
South Eastern HighlandsBungonia Known None
South Eastern HighlandsCapertee Uplands Predicted None
South Eastern HighlandsCrookwell Predicted None
South Eastern HighlandsHill End Known None
South Eastern HighlandsMonaro Known None
South Eastern HighlandsMurrumbateman Known None
South Eastern HighlandsOberon Known None
South Eastern QueenslandClarence Lowlands Known None
Sydney BasinBurragorang Predicted None
Sydney BasinCumberland Known None
Sydney BasinEttrema Known None
Sydney BasinHunter Known None
Sydney BasinIllawarra Known None
Sydney BasinJervis Known None
Sydney BasinMoss Vale Predicted None
Sydney BasinPittwater Known None
Sydney BasinSydney Cataract Known None
Sydney BasinWollemi Predicted None
Sydney BasinWyong Known None
Sydney BasinYengo Known None