Nature conservation

Threatened species

Northern Warm Temperate Rainforests

Vegetation class map

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Estimated percentage landcover for vegetation class


Closed forest. Tree canopy even, up to 30 m tall, generally lacking emergents, and generally comprising 4-15 species with similar leaf sizes. Occasional lianas and epiphytes, open shrub/sapling stratum and variable fern/herb groundcover amongst copious leaf litter. Mosses, liverworts and lichens may be conspicuous on tree trunks or the forest floor.


The canopy is dominated by Acmena smithii (lilly pilly), Ceratopetalum apetalum (coachwood) and Doryphora sassafras (sassafras). Other trees, such as Endiandra sieberi (hard corkwood), Pittosporum undulatum (sweet pittosporum), Quintinia sieberi (possumwood) are scattered throughout. North from Barrington Tops Caldcluvia paniculosa (soft corkwood) and Orites excelsa (prickly ash), are common.


Orites excelsa, Cordyline stricta, Tasmannia insipida, Citriobatus Callicoma serratifolia (black wattle), Citriobatus pauciflorus (orange thorn), Cordyline stricta (narrow-leaved palm lily), Rapanea howittiana (brush muttonwood), Tasmannia insipida (brush pepperbush).


Cephalaralia cephalobotrys (climbing panax), Hibbertia scandens var. glabra, Marsdenia rostrata (common milk vine), Morinda jasminoides, Pandorea pandorana (wonga wonga vine), Parsonsia purpurascens (black silkpod), Petermannia cirrosa, Ripogonum discolor (prickly supplejack), Smilax australis (sarsaparilla).


Dianella caerulea var. producta (blue flax lily), Asplenium australasicum (birds nest fern), Blechnum cartilagineum (gristle fern), Calochlaena dubia (common ground fern), Cyathea australis (rough treefern), Histiopteris incisa (bats wing fern), Lastreopsis decomposita (trim shield fern), Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum, Lomandra spicata.


Sheltered gullies and slopes in hilly to steep terrain of the coast and escarpment on moderately fertile soils in high rainfall areas, extending above 1000 m, elevation, on granites, rhyolites, syenites or sedimentary substrates that yield acid soils with moderate levels of nutrients.


Escarpment & associated foothills from Queensland border to Batemans Bay. Extensive stands at Washpool, Dorrigo, Werrikimbee and the Illawarra escarpment, and abundant small patches in the Blue Mountains. Largely confined to New South Wales.


Tree diversity declines with increasing latitude and altitude. A transition from Northern to Moderately species-rich vegetation with 3-6 dominant trees, becoming more depauperate with increasing latitude and grading into Southern Warm Temperate Rainforests between the Shoalhaven River Illawarra and Batemens Bay. Grades into Cool Temperate Rainforests at elevations > c. 800 m.


Floyd (1990); Clarke et al. (2000); NPWS (2002)

See all threatened species associated with this vegetation class

See a list of species, populations and ecological communities associated with the Northern Warm Temperate Rainforests vegetation class.